The last word VIPER structure tutorial

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Discover ways to write scalable iOS code utilizing the VIPER structure with some MVVM and MVC methods and coordinators in thoughts.


Swift design patterns and iOS architectures

A software program design sample is principally a generic template of find out how to remedy a specific – however normally native – state of affairs. Achitectural patterns have greater influence on the entire codebase, they’re excessive degree generic templates. Please bear in mind one factor:

there isn’t a such factor as a nasty structure

The weapon of choise solely depends upon the state of affairs, however you recognize all the pieces is relative. Let’s stroll via all of the iOS design patterns and architectures actual fast and begin studying VIPER. 🐍

Swift design patterns

Let’s begin with the fundamentals, proper? If we do not get into UIKit, we are able to discover that there are various design patterns invented, perhaps you recognize a few of them already. However hey, since we do not have that a lot time and I would like to speak about VIPER, let’s try the fundamental precept of constructing UIKit apps utilizing the MVC sample.


The Mannequin-View-Controller (Huge-View-Controller) sample is a primary idea. You’ve normally an enormous UIViewController subclass that controls all of the views and collects each mannequin that wanted to be displayed for the tip person. For instance you name an API endpoint utilizing URLSession or Alamofire from the controller, do the response information validation and formatting then you definitely implement your desk or assortment view delegates on the view controller, so principally all the appliance logic goes inside that single overstuffed depressing view controller class. Does this ring a bell for you? πŸ™„


After realizing the issue, the very first thing that you are able to do is outsourcing the info reworking or binding half to a sepearate class. That is how the good folks at Miscrosoft invented the Mannequin-View-ViewModel structure sample. Now you are one step nearer, your information fashions and the views can have their “get collectively” on a complete new degree inside shiny new information far-far away from controller land. Nevertheless this sample won’t clear up all of the leftovers contained in the view controller. Do not forget that you continue to should feed the view controller with information, deal with all of the totally different states.


What if we transfer out all the info loading and presentation stuff from the view controller and put it into a brand new class magically referred to as the Presenter? Sounds good, the view controller can personal the brand new presenter occasion and we are able to dwell fortunately ever after. C’mon folks we should always actually rename this to the Most Priceless Sample ever! πŸ˜‰

The Coordinator sample

Say howdy to The coordinator by Soroush Khanlou. Or ought to I merely name this because the Inverse Mannequin View Presenter sample? Look, right here is the deal, coordinators are on a complete new degree within this evolution progress, however in addition they have an excessive amount of to do. It is towards the Single Accountability precept, as a result of now it’s important to handle the presentation context, the info storage, the routing and all of the differnet states inside coordinators or sub-coordinators… however, lastly your view controller is free from all of the leftover baggage and it might probably focus instantly on it is job, which is? πŸ™ƒ

To be fucking dumb.

Presenting views utilizing UIKit associated stuff, and forwarding occasions.

I do not hate the design patters from above, I am simply merely attempting to level out (in a humorous / sarcastic approach) why VIPER was born on the primary place. πŸ˜…

Are you continue to with me? 😬

The VIPER structure

Initially DO NOT consider that VIPER is dangerous, simply because somebody misused it. I feel it is a freaking wonderful structure! You simply should be taught it correctly, which is tough, due to the shortage of fine tutorials. Everyone seems to be evaluating architectures, however that is not what folks ought to do. So far as I can see, an MVP is sweet for a small app with a number of screens, you must by no means use VIPER for these apps. The true drawback begins for those who app grows and increasingly parts get into the sport.

In case you are planning to jot down a small app, simply begin with MVC. In a while you may repair the large view controller drawback with MVVM, however if you wish to take it one degree additional you may all the time use MVP or the coordinator sample to maintain maintainability. Which is totally superb, till you notice at some point that your code is full of utility courses, managers, handlers and all of the nonsense objects. Sounds acquainted? πŸ˜…

As I discussed this earlier than there isn’t a such factor as a nasty structure. There are solely dangerous selections, which lead us to hardly maintainable codebases. So let me information you thru essentially the most helpful design sample that you’re going to ever need to know in an effort to write truely scalable iOS purposes: VIPER with module builders = VIPER(B)

Understanding VIPER

The VIPER structure is predicated on the only duty precept (S.O.L.I.D.)) which leads us to the idea of a clear structure. The core parts or as an example layers of a VIPERB module are the next ones:


It is the interface layer, which implies UIKit information, largely UIViewController subclasses and all the opposite stuff. Views do not do something that is associated to enterprise logic, the’re only a presentation and occasion forwarding layer which is utilized by the presenter. As a result of the view is only a pure view controller, you need to use MVVM rules or information managers to make your undertaking much more concise.


The interactor is liable for retrieving information from the mannequin layer, and its implementation is totally impartial of the person interface. It is vital to do not forget that information managers (community, database, sensor) are usually not a part of VIPER, so they’re handled as separate parts (providers), coming outdoors from the VIPER module land and they are often injected as dependencies for interactors.

The Interactor can put together or rework information, that is coming from the service layer. For instance it might probably do some sorting or filtering earlier than asking the right community service implementation to request or save the info. However do not forget that the Interactor doesn’t know the view, so it has no thought how the info needs to be ready for the view, that is the function of the Presenter. πŸ™„


UIKit impartial class that prepares the info within the format required by the view and take choices based mostly on UI occasions from the view, that is why typically it is referred as an occasion handler. It is the core class of a VIPER module, as a result of it additionally communicates with the Interactor and calls the router for wire-framing (aka. to current a brand new module or dismiss the present one).

It is the one class that communicates with virtually all the opposite parts. That is the ONLY job of the presenter, so it shouldn’t know something about UIKit or low degree information fashions. Mainly it is the guts of the appliance, or some would say it is the place the place all of the enterprise logic will get applied. πŸ’œ


Plain mannequin courses used largely by the interactor. Often I am defining them outdoors the VIPER module construction (within the service layer), as a result of these entities are shared throughout the system. We might separate them by module, however normally I do not like that method as a result of eg. all of the CoreData fashions may be generated into one place. Similar factor applies if you’re utilizing Swagger or an analogous instrument.


The navigation logic of the appliance utilizing UIKit courses. For instance if you’re utilizing the identical iPhone views in a iPad utility, the one factor that may change is how the router builds up the construction. This lets you hold all the pieces else, however the Router untouched. It additionally listens for navigation stream adjustments from the presenter, so it’s going to show the right display if wanted. Additionally if you should open an exterior URL name UIApplication.shared.openURL(url) contained in the Router as a result of that is additionally a routing motion, the identical logic applies for social media sharing utilizing UIActivityViewController.

Additionally if it’s important to go information between VIPER modules it seems like a proper place to do that within the router. I normally talk between two module utilizing a delegate sample, so I picked up this behavior of calling delegate capabilities within the router. πŸ“²


Some individuals are utilizing the router to construct the entire module, however I do not like that method. That is why I am all the time utilizing a separate module builder class. It is solely duty is to construct the entire module by utilizing dependency injection for all of the extenal providers. It could possibly additionally construct mock or different variations of the identical module. That is fairly useful if it involves unit testing. Completely is sensible. πŸ‘

NOT all the pieces is a VIPER module

For instance if you wish to create a generic subclass from a UIViewWhatever please do not attempt to stuff that into the parts above. It’s best to create a spot outdoors your VIPER modules folder and put it there. There might be some use circumstances with particular courses which are higher to not be VIPERized! πŸ˜‰

Companies and utility particular code

I normally have 3 separate layers in my purposes. Modules, providers, and app. All of the VIPER modules are sitting contained in the Modules folder. All the things that is community or information associated goes to the Companies folder (api service, core information service, location service, and so forth.) and afterward will get used within the module builder relying the present atmosphere (for instance mock implementation for testing).Β All of the remaining stuff like view subclassess, and different UI associated objects, app particular styling or design clever issues are positioned contained in the App listing.

The best way to write VIPER code?

I can not emphase sufficient how vital is to be taught this structure earlier than you begin utilizing it. I consider that issues can go actual dangerous if somebody misunderstands VIPER and begin placing view logic in a presenter for instance. If you happen to had a earlier dangerous expertise with VIPER, take into consideration this quote: do not blame the instrument, blame the carpenter (simply as Ilya Puchka properly stated on a twitter dialog). πŸ”¨

Each single element will simply get into the correct place for those who observe the principles of VIPER.

Module technology

By no means begin to create a VIPER module by hand, you must all the time use a code generator, as a result of (sadly) you may want numerous boilerplate code for every module. That appears fairly unlucky at first sight, however that is what offers the true energy of this structure. All members of your developer crew will know the place to search for if a selected challenge happens. If it is a view challenge, it’s important to repair the view, if it involves a navigation drawback then it is a router drawback.

There are numerous current code generator options (one of many famoust is generamba), however I made my very own little Swift instrument for producing VIPER modules. It is fairly rattling light-weight, nevertheless it’s actually heplful (it makes use of templates in an effort to generate a brand new module) i am calling it: VIPERA. (Hungarian title of the viper snake… haha πŸ˜‚)

You simply should clone / obtain the repository & run swift run set up --with-templates in an effort to make it work. To any extent further you may merely run vipera MyModule to generate a brand new module based mostly on the default template. As a second argument you may go your personal template listing title (you may create your personal template below the ~/.vipera folder, or you may change the default one too).

The anatomy of the bottom template is fairly easy, I am not creating subfolders for every layer, however I am separating the interfaces and the default implementation elsewhere. That offers me a bit little bit of sanity, as a result of a lot of the VIPER templates appeared to be very deterrent simply due to the undertaking construction.

Naming conventions

Protocols are outlined for nearly each VIPER element. Each protocol might be prefixed with the module title, and it will not have another suffix besides from the layer title (like MyModuleRouter, MyModulePresenter).

Default implementation is used for the fundamental situation, each protocol implementation follows the ModuleName+Default+Layer naming conference. So for instance MyModuleDefaultRouter or MyModuleDefaultPresenter.

Inter-module communication utilizing delegates

The stream is one thing like this:

Router / Presenter

The presenter can ship occasions for the router utilizing the router protocol definition.

Presenter / Interactor

The interactor can notify the presenter via the presenter’s interface, and the presenter can name the interactor utilizing the outlined strategies contained in the interactor protocol.

Presenter / View

The view normally has setter strategies to replace it is contents outlined on the view protocol. It could possibly additionally notify the presenter of incoming or load occasions via the presenter protocol.

Knowledge switch between modules

Think about a listing, you choose an merchandise and go to a brand new controller scene. It’s a must to go not less than a novel indentifier between VIPER modules to make this potential.

It is normally performed considerably like this:

  • The view calls the didSelect methodology on the presenter with the id
  • The presenter forwards the id to the router utilizing the routeFor(id) methodology
  • The router calls the builder to construct a brand new module utilizing the id
  • The builder builds the brand new module utilizing the id
  • The router presents the brand new module utilizing it is view (controller)
  • The brand new module passes the id for everybody who wants it (router, presenter)
  • The brand new module’s presenter will get the id
  • The brand new module’s interactor masses the info and offers it for the presenter
  • The brand new module’s presenter offers the info for the view and presents it
  • Element display seems with correct information.

In case you are presenting a controller modally you may also go the unique router as a delegate, so you can shut it correctly if it is wanted. 😎

Reminiscence administration

Lengthy story quick:

  • The builder holds noone.
  • The router retains a weak reference of the view and the presenter.
  • The presenter holds the router and the interactor strongly
  • The interactor retains a weak refernece of the presenter
  • The view retains a powerful refernece of the presenter
  • UIKit holds the views.

It’s best to verify this within the offered instance, no leaks – I hope so –Β all the pieces will get launched good and easily after you return or dismiss a module. 🀞

Remaining conclusion: ought to I be taught VIPER?

Though VIPER is extremely criticized due to it is complexity, all I can say it is definitely worth the effort to be taught its priciples correctly. You will see that there are far more advantages of utilizing VIPER as a substitute of ignoring it.


  • Simplicity – for giant groups on advanced initiatives
  • Scalability – simultaneous work seamlessly
  • Reusability – decoupled app parts based mostly on roles
  • Consistency – module skeletons, separation of considerations
  • Readability – Single obligations (SOLID)
  • Testability – separated small courses, TDD, higher code protection
  • Interfaces – module independence, nicely outlined scopes
  • Bug fixing – simpler to trace points, find bugs and issues
  • Supply management – smaller information, much less conflicts, cleaner code
  • Straightforward – codebase seems related, quicker to learn others work


  • Verbosity – many information per module
  • Complexity – many protocols and delegates
  • On-boarding – lack of correct VIPER information
  • Engagement – VIPER is dangerous, as a result of it is advanced, meh!

I made a follow-up article about VIPER greatest practices that I’ve be taught alongside the journey, you’ll find the pattern repository on github. I hope that these tutorials will provide help to to be taught this structure higher, you probably have any questions, be at liberty to contact me on twitter. πŸ‘¨β€πŸ’»


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